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Email address. The throne, globe, and wand, the symbols of sovereignty and power interpreted by different cultures for centuries, also have a place in the Artuqid coin iconography. Coins of Kievan Rus , A. This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. Therefore, all coins minted in this city, governed by the Zengids, had the name of the mint, Al-Jazeera, except for those first minted Spengler-Sayles , Virgo or Erigone represents the Virgo sign of the zodiac and is believed to be affected by Mercury9.
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These governors commissioned a low number of coins with depictions and other coins that included the 4 Spengler-Sayles estimated that the nickname of Zengi possibly comes from his dark complexion but it is still unclear Spengler-Sayles , 1. Spengler and Sayles state that all of Mesopotamia was generally known as Al Jazeera in the early Islamic period, and it is understood that Jazeera-i ibn Umar was important to the Mosul Atabegship due to its mint. Therefore, all coins minted in this city, governed by the Zengids, had the name of the mint, Al-Jazeera, except for those first minted Spengler-Sayles , These coins are as follows: Coins of Artuqids Husam al-Din Timurtash AD Obverse: This right-profile bust has a beard and a pearl diadem, and wears a loose cloak tied on his right shoulder with a fibula.
The inscription on the border that encircles the bust is illegible. Reverse: There are three lines of inscription inside the circle and a very stricken inscription around the circle. The busts are slightly turned towards different directions. The legend comprises of simple Kufic characters and is read starting from the top internal part, then the left, right, and bottom external part.
The top and bottom parts include Kalima-i Tawhid, and the left and right parts include the name and title of the Abbasid Caliph Artuk , , ; Artuk , 89, Lev. II, 38; YKY , , Reverse: There is a head with frizzy hair inside the circle of the point border.
The inscription around the point border starts from the top, continues towards the bottom and right, and ends on the left. The head is looking upwards. The bust is surrounded by a square point border.
Four spring-formed inscriptions on the sides go back four generations in the family tree of the governor, and continue on the legend on the reverse side. The inscriptions are on the left, top, bottom, and right, respectively Artuk , 90, Lev. II, Reverse: There is a five-line inscription written in Naskh.
The titles and name of the governor starts at the top and ends at the bottom. The inscription is surrounded by a point ordered border YKY , , ; Artuk , , ; Artuk , 90, Lev. IX, IX, 46; Sayles , ; Spengler-Sayles , Constantine I was depicted on the front face of the golden coins minted in the last period of his power with a diadem and looking upwards Levha IV, 13; Cormack-Vassilaki , , , Husam al-Din Yulug Arslan AD Obverse: This shows four full-length figures in different poses: a figure with a veil and a long, loose costume sits in the center facing left, and the remaining frontal figures are behind, to the right, and to the left side of the figure in the center, with their heads bent.
Reverse: The five-line Kufic inscription is surrounded by a circular legend. The first three lines include the name and titles of Al-Nasir, the Abbasid Caliph; the name, title, and state of origin of Saif ad-Din Abu Bakr, the new Ayyubid Sultan, is given on the top, bottom, left, and right. The circular legend includes the title, name, and state of origin of the Artuqid governor, the founder of the dynasty, and the date.
Experts have various opinions and evaluations about the depiction on the front face of the coins. Spengler and Sayles state some of these various opinions in their study on the Artuqid Beyliq. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate these opinions on the interpretation of the depiction on the coins, also taking today's studies into consideration. Lane-Poole, in their study in the s, describes that the depiction on this coin reflects the mourning after Saladin's death.
Spengler and Sayles indicate two undeniable factors: the lamenting expression of the central figure and the fact that the coin was minted in the year when Saladin died Spengler-Sayles , In his study dated , Dr. William H. Helen Mitchell Brown disagrees with this opinion. However, Poole accepts that the depiction on this terracotta vase may have been taken as a model by the Turkish Beyliq as the expression of sorrow and mourning.
Edhem did not make a specific comment on this subject, while Philip Whitting, an expert on Byzantine coins, in his study estimates that the three figures on the coin are paying respect to the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus. Spengler and Sayles also express that other interpretations, such as a philosopher and his students, exist for this depiction; however, the most reasonable opinion among all these interpretations seems to be the opinion of Scott Spengler-Sayles , If the figure emphasized in the center is considered to reflect a celestial being in the zodiac, it could be Virgo, or Erigone, as they are known in Greek mythology.
Virgo or Erigone represents the Virgo sign of the zodiac and is believed to be affected by Mercury9.
The masters of minting Artuqid coins developed an interesting and different coin iconography by combining astrological elements and the motifs shown on the coins from ancient periods. It is considered that the seven planets depicted in the copper- and silver-inlaid works include a figure of a mourning woman, which is related to Mercury and the Virgo sign.
Spengler-Sayles , There are opinions that this depiction was created to emphasize the great loss upon Saladin's death. Nevertheless, this is a very simple and plain depiction for the Artuqids, who created a coin iconography combining astrological elements and the coin depictions from ancient times with their own traditions. Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan AD Obverse: The depiction features a lion on the right profile, and it features a man's head and body frontally and legs on the profile. The circular Kufic legend starts from the position of 1 o'clock and gives the name and titles of the Artuqid ruler together with his regional title, Melik Diyarbekir.
It is surrounded by a linear border.
Book from the Archaeological Survey of IndiaCentral Archaeological Library, New DelhiBook Number: Book Title: International. Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans [Stanley Lane-Poole] on facfapesrioher.gq *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This work has been selected by scholars as being.
The date is written on three sides. The legend around the circle gives the name, titles, and state of origin of Saif ad-Din Abu Bakr. Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan AD Obverse: This shows the bust of a Turkish-type man with messy hair, who is slightly looking to the left, and his costume is buckled.